LanLiu, XingkeLiu, MengchangLiu, DefuXie, HongYan
The proline hydroxylase domain-containing enzymes (PHDs) acts as cellular oxygen sensors, inducing a series of responses to hypoxia, especially during the regulation of metabolism and energy homeostasis. The increase of Ca2+ in cardiomyocytes, induced by the opening of PHD signaling pathway, is the key initiation signal necessary for the PHD-mediated regulation of the energy metabolism pathway, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains incompletely understood. This study used PHD inhibitors (PHIs) and PHD2-specific RNA interference (PHD2shRNA) to inhibit PHD signals in cardiomyocytes to explore whether transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is involved in the regulation of calcium ion influx in the PHD activation pathway associated with to AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The Fluo-3AM probe was used to measure changes in free intracellular calcium ion concentrations, and Western blot analysis was used to detect the levels of phosphorylated (P)-AMPK, TRPA1, and P–Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅱ (CaMKⅡ) levels. The PHI-mediated inhibition of PHD resulted in an increase in free Ca2+ fluorescence in cardiomyocytes, which activated AMPK, TRPA1, and CaMKⅡ. The TRPA1 inhibitor HC030031, the CaMKII inhibitor KN93, and a ryanodine inhibitor (Ryanodine) were all able to inhibit the PHI-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ and AMPK activation. Both PHIs and PHD2shRNA were able to effectively activate CaMKII and TRPA1. However, an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor and the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89 did not significantly inhibit the PHI-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ and AMPK activation. These results indicated that PHD might activate the CaMKⅡ pathway through the TRPA1 ion channel, inducing the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2), activating AMPK to initiate the protective effects of hypoxia in cardiomyocytes.
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